Blessing for a Drink of Water

Image: Water, glass, ice cubes. (By Bruno Glätsch / Pixabay)

We will die without water. The human body can survive no more than a few days without water, depending on the temperature, the exposure to direct sunshine, and many other variables. It makes sense, then, that there is a blessing for a drink of water.

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יְ‑יָ אֱ‑לֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם שֶׁהַכֹּל נִהְיָה בִּדְבָרוֹ:

Baruch Atah Adonai, Eloheinu Melech haOlam, she-ha-kol ni-hi-yah bid-var-o.

Blessed are You, Eternal our God, Ruler of Time-and-Space, by Whose word all things came to be.

This blessing is also used for other things we eat that do not come from the ground: meat, eggs, fish, chicken, and other drinks (except wine, which has its own blessing.)

Before a full meal that includes bread, we say only the blessing over bread and that covers everything on the table.


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Joy’s Chicken Soup (Simplified)

Image:

One of the tough things about conversion is that new Jews enter the community without the ready-made family traditions of many (but not all) “born” Jews. I was given a lovely gift by Joy Krauss, z”l, who shared with me many of her family recipes for traditional foods.

This is a simplified version of Joy’s Chicken Soup.

— Easy Chicken Soup —

4 chicken thighs, with skin and bone
2 carrots, cut in large pieces
2 or more celery tops
1 onion, peeled and quartered
small bunch fresh dill weed
6 whole peppercorns
cold water to cover

Put all ingredients into a big soup pot over medium heat. Simmer, uncovered, until the chicken is falling apart. Cut up the larger pieces of chicken meat.

Take all solids out of the pot. Pick the meat off of the bones, throw away the skin and bones. Toss out the dill weed. Chop the carrots, celery and onion. Put them with the chicken meat.

Strain the liquid, return it to the pot.

Return the chicken, carrots, celery and onion to the pot, stir together, and serve. Season to taste with salt and pepper.

(An adaptation of a Lithuanian Jewish recipe from Joy Krauss, z”l)

Bal Tashkeit: Do Not Destroy

Image: Red apples on the branch (Pixel2013/Pixabay)

Jewish tradition has a special respect for trees. A passage in Deuteronomy starts a discussion that will go on for centuries:

(19) When in your war against a city you have to besiege it a long time in order to capture it, you must not destroy its trees, wielding the ax against them. You may eat of them, but you must not cut them down. Are trees of the field human to withdraw before you into the besieged city? 

(20) Only trees that you know do not yield food may be destroyed; you may cut them down for constructing siegeworks against the city that is waging war on you, until it has been reduced.

Deuteronomy 20: 19-20

This passage appears in a long discussion of the rules of war. Even in the heat of battle, fruit-bearing trees must not be disturbed. Why is this? We get a clue in verse 20: we may destroy trees that do not yield food. The fruit-bearing trees provide life for human beings, animals, and birds. To destroy them is to lay waste to the earth, because life on earth is interconnected.

This prohibition is inconvenient in all-out war. One is tempted to say, “But the other side has destroyed trees! We must teach them a lesson!” Or even, “These are really our trees, so we can destroy them!” And surely some military strategists argued for a work-around: what if we kill the trees but by some other means than cutting them down? The Sages have a fast answer for that:

6) “You shall not cut down its tree by wielding an axe against it”: This tells me only of iron (i.e., an axe blade). Whence do I derive (the same for destroying it by) diverting a water course from it? From “You shall not destroy its tree” — in any manner.

Sifrei Devarim 203:6-10

What if the tree is in the way of a farmer who is trying to plow? May he destroy a fruit tree? Again, the answer is quite firm:

Ravina objects to this: And let the tanna also enumerate one who chops down beautiful fruit trees in the course of plowing, and its prohibition is from here: “For you may eat of it, and you shall not chop it down”(Deuteronomy 13:18).

BT Makkot 22a

Some of the objections to the destruction of fruit trees are quite poetic:


When people cut down the wood of the tree which yields fruit, its cry goes from one end of the world to the other, and the voice is inaudible.


Pirke de R. Eliezer 34:4

Of course, there are times and places where it is necessary to destroy a tree, even a fruit tree. Maimonides gives us a succinct description of that in the Mishnah Torah:

Fruit-bearing trees must not be cut down outside of the city43 nor do we block their irrigation water causing the trees to dry up, as it says, “do not destroy her trees” (Deut. 20:19). Anyone who cuts down a tree receives lashes. This is not only at times of a siege, but anyone at anytime who chops down a fruit-bearing tree by for destructive purposes receives stripes. The tree may be cut down if it is damaging other trees or it is damaging another’s field, or because the tree is more valuable for its wood than its fruit. The Torah only forbids wanton destruction.

Mishneh Torah, Kings & Wars 6:8

Maimonides zeros in on the principle that the Sages derived from the discussion of fruit trees: “The Torah only forbids wanton destruction.” Thus from a Torah discussion of the rules of war, we learn the rules of peace as well: we are commanded to preserve this world, and not to engage in wanton destruction.

When I read in the news about Israelis destroying the olive trees belonging to Palestinians, all I can think is, “Who taught Torah to these people?” Of all the ways they might fight with the Palestinians, why choose this particular one? Olive trees normally live to a great age. They give fruit to eat, and oil for many purposes. If this is not “wanton destruction,” then what is?

I do not have an easy answer to the situation in the West Bank. I have friends on all sides of that particular argument. But I know one part of this is very simple: we are commanded not to destroy fruit trees.

Ancient olive trees. Photo by Dimitri Laudin/Shutterstock, all rights reserved.

Watch Those Poppy Seed Bagels!

Image: A poppy seed bagel with cream cheese, tomato, and mushrooms. (yossigee/pixabay

Poppy seed bagels are among my favorite Jewish food treats. The chewy, nutty black seeds are so delicious on a bagel that it is worth the trouble of dealing with tiny orbs. Then add a bit of cream cheese, some lox, onion and cucumber, and it’s a chewy bit of heaven! Poppy seeds are healthy, too, as they are good sources for oleic acid, dietary fiber, B vitamins and several minerals.

However: if your life includes even occasional drug tests, you should know that the stories about positive drug tests from eating poppy seeds are not urban legend.  The Washington Post recently reported that a woman faced monitoring for drug abuse after she was admitted to a Maryland hospital in labor, and a routine drug screen showed traces of opiates in her bloodstream.

The positive test result meant that her daughter had to stay in the hospital and be monitored for five days. Afterward, Eden was assigned a case worker who closed her file after determining that she was a “legitimate case of the poppy seed defense,” WBAL-TV reported. – The Washington Post, 8/8/18

So, enjoy your bagels, but if there’s a chance you will be subjected to tests for opiates, choose plain or sesame seed instead!

What’s your favorite bagel? Where do you find the best bagels in your area?

Potluck Shabbat!

Image: An assortment of foods in colorful bowls. (Photo: fotosunny/Shutterstock)

I’m so excited! I love inviting my students to a potluck Shabbat evening, and I’ve sent out invitations for later this month.

I thought I’d share my “to-do” list here, in case any readers are interested in inviting friends for a potluck Shabbat. Hospitality is a mitzvah, remember – this is something you can do that will enrich your life, enrich your Shabbat, and build your community.

If you are thinking, “Oh no, my house is cluttered!” I will share with you that I am a haphazard housekeeper and practically a Queen of Clutter. I have decided not to let that stop me. If some room needs to be off limits, I shut the door.  If they see that I’m cluttery, well, that will let them feel better about their own housekeeping!

  1. Decide who to invite. If you are anxious about entertaining, keep it small. If you are comfortable feeding numbers, go for it. Either way, decide if you are also inviting significant others and children. If your house isn’t baby-proofed, you should warn parents about that.
  2. Choose a way to send invitations, and how you’ll keep track of numbers. I used Eventbrite, since I was inviting 36 people plus possible family folks. You might choose an online invitation service like Evite, or just do it via email or paper invitations. Or phone calls (for that retro feeling.)
  3. Plan your menu. I generally make a vegan main dish (black beans and brown rice  this month) and have challah, wine, and grape juice. I invite guests to bring a vegetarian side dish, salad, or dessert. I personally do not like to try to track what everyone is bringing, so we get what we get. I usually have a box of cookies ready if no one brings dessert. If you are not a cook, cheese pizza makes a nice main dish.
  4. Make your grocery list. Be sure to add to it paper napkins and plastic silverware and cups if you will need them. Also butter and/or honey for the challah.
  5. Check your kiddush cup or other ritual objects well ahead of time. Can you find them? Do they need polishing or de-waxing? Have you got Shabbat candles and matches?
  6. Got pets? Decide what their situation will be during the evening. Also, warn guests who may be allergic that you’ve got them.
  7. Have extra serving utensils ready. It’s amazing how many people get here and then realize they didn’t bring forks to serve their salad.
  8. Decide where people will put the food when they arrive. I have them put it directly on the table. Some people then sit at the table, and if there are more than 12 people (the max I can seat at one table) then I make sure I have chairs for the rest. They’ll spread out in the living room and on the patio.
  9. Plan some place where people can put coats, etc. I usually have them put them on my bed.
  10. Make sure you have a bentcher or other text for the blessings. Don’t rely on memory unless you are really sure of it.

On Friday:

  1. Set the table.
  2. Have the food ready. Be sure to have wine, grape juice, and water on the table.
  3. Welcome your guests!

One other thing it’s good to decide ahead of time; do you want help with clean up? What specific jobs can people do to help you with it? That way, when someone offers, you’ll be ready with something for them to do. I usually put a pot of water on the counter for silverware, so it is not piled in with everything else in the sink.

The first time I did hosted Shabbat dinner for friends, it felt like a huge big deal. I was nervous about the house, the food, the everything. And then, as my disabilities became more of a challenge, I quit doing it for a while, until the idea of a potluck occurred to me. Now I look forward to these evenings, which let my students get to know one another in a way they can’t in the classroom.

Shabbat shalom uv’tei avon!  

(Peaceful Sabbath and bon appetit!)

 

Blessings for Vegetables and Fruit

Image: A large display of fruits and vegetables. (Photo via MaksPhotography/Pixabay)

It’s spring! Every week new fruits and vegetables become available, depending on where you live.  The appearance of these new goodies offer us a great opportunity to take on the practice of saying blessings for our food.

Saying the blessings causes us to pause for a moment and NOTICE what we are doing. We stop, we say the words, we hear the words acknowledging that this is a special product of the earth, and then we eat it. It is both a mindfulness practice and a way of reminding ourselves that the produce doesn’t grow at the store: it grows in the earth, watered by the rain (and maybe irrigation) and it passes through many hands on its way to us. Here are the blessings:

A blessing for vegetables and things that grow from the ground:

Baruch Atah, Adonai Eloheinu Melekh HaOlam, borei p’ree haAdmah.

Blessed are You, Eternal, Our God, Ruler of Time-and-Space, Who creates produce from the ground.

A blessing for fruit from a tree:

Baruch Atah, Adonai Eloheinu, Melekh HaOlam, borei p’ree haEtz.

Blessed are You, Eternal, Our God, Ruler of Time-and-Space, Who creates fruit from the tree.

It is perfectly OK to say the blessing in English. That said, if you are interested in learning Hebrew, memorizing blessings and prayers is a great beginning.

Enjoy the springtime!