What does Kol Nidre Mean?

Kol Nidre [All Vows] is one of the most dramatic and moving moments of the Jewish year. It is normally sung at the beginning of the service for Yom Kippur, and it sets the tone for the solemn Day of Atonement.

In a formal presentation of Kol Nidre, three leaders of the congregation stand before the open ark and before the congregation, holding one or three Torah scrolls. The cantor sings the text three times, with emotion:

All vows we are likely to make, all oaths and pledges we are likely to vow, or swear, or consecrate, or prohibit upon ourselves between this Yom Kippur and the next Yom Kippur, we publicly renounce. Let them all be relinquished and abandoned, null and void, neither firm nor established. Our vows are no longer vows, our prohibitions are no longer prohibitions, and our oaths are no longer oaths.

The whole community of the Children of Israel, and the strangers dwelling among them, shall be forgiven, for all of them were without premeditation. – Numbers 15:26

O pardon the iniquities of this people, according to Thy abundant mercy, just as Thou forgave this people ever since they left Egypt.

The Lord said, ‘I pardon them according to your words. (three times) –Numbers 14:20

That’s a literal translation of Kol Nidre from its original Aramaic into English. The lines in italics are Hebrew, and from the book of Numbers. What does it all mean?

First let me talk about what Kol Nidre is not: it is not a “get out of jail free” trick. It does not apply, nor has it ever applied, to business obligations, contracts, or to personal promises and vows.  Through history, it has caused a lot of trouble when those who hate Jews have read it that way. And let’s be honest – the words do sound quite problematic on a surface reading. Rabbis have challenged its use periodically, but it is one part of the service ordinary Jews have always seen as essential.

Kol Nidre is a very old part of the service. We know that it was already part of the Yom Kippur service well before the year 1000 CE.  Unlike most prayers, it is a legal formula, echoing the legal formulas of Babylon during the period of 800-1000 CE. As with many things in Jewish life, there are several explanations for its origin and meaning:

  1. Some say that it began during a period of extreme persecution, when many Jews were forced to convert to the dominant religion against their will. Those Jews then approached the Day of Atonement with false vows on their consciences, and Kol Nidre was a release from that guilt. While this is an appealing and very popular understanding of the prayer, it doesn’t hold up historically. For one thing, while the persecution mentioned in this version of the story is usually located in Spain, the Expulsion from Spain took place in 1492 CE, and we know that the prayer is at least 500 years older.
  2. A passage in the Zohar suggests that we recite Kol Nidre at the beginning of the Day of Atonement because on that day we are painfully aware that we have sinned and God has issued decrees [vows] of Heavenly judgement from which there is no escape. By standing up and making a formal statement of annulling our vows, we are suggesting that God reconsider any decrees of judgment against us. First we recite the formula, then we quote from the Torah itself examples of God pardoning the people of Israel.
  3. Another understanding of Kol Nidre is that we say it as we embark on 25 hours of intense fasting and prayer. As the day goes on, perhaps we will be so overwhelmed by our sins, and disoriented by the fast, that we will make promises we cannot keep. How many Jews have promised, on Yom Kippur, to stop smoking tobacco? And by the next Yom Kippur, how many have managed to keep that vow? We ask God to give us the benefit of the doubt: we’ll try very hard to keep our vows, but we may foolishly make vows we cannot keep.
  4. Rabbi Eric Solomon has suggested that the truth of Kol Nidre is not intellectual, but emotional. The words are in Aramaic, a language few understand. The music (which has its own complicated origins) is solemn and heart-wringing. It is one of the few tunes in the year where the cantor is encouraged to embellish for the greatest emotional impact. Rabbi Solomon writes that the purpose of Kol Nidre is not so much the annulment of vows as the opening of hearts and souls to the vulnerability required for Yom Kippur. It sets the tone for the day – an explanation that I think comes as close as any to explain the fierce affection for this prayer that is evident in every synagogue.

What does Kol Nidre mean? It means that the day like no other days, the Sabbath of Sabbaths has begun. It means “Get Serious.” It is a signal sent to every Jewish heart that the Day of Atonement is here, an opportunity not to be missed.

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Rabbi Ruth Adar is a teaching rabbi in San Leandro, CA. She has many hats: rabbi, granny, and ham radio operator K6RAV. She blogs at http://coffeeshoprabbi.com/ and teaches at Jewish Gateways in Albany, CA.

16 thoughts on “What does Kol Nidre Mean?”

  1. The thing which continues to bamboozle my literal minded autistic brain is to be asking for things I have not yet vowed to do/not do to be nullified…..it feels more logical(to me, and I wouldn’t dare to suggest that I know better than you, Rabbi Ruth – no cheeky presumptuousness at all) that it be regarding the vows I have made over the last year, the one just finished, and basically asking forgiveness for those I broke or did not keep, so that I can start the new year with a clean slate, so to speak. It’s almost like a cognitive dissonance in my head…..

    1. Alex, you are absolutely right – this is a practice full of cognitive dissonance. In fact, some versions of KN refer to future vows, and other versions refer to past vows. (Sephardic communities are more likely to use the latter.)

      The best I can offer is that the sum of the theories about KN is “Dear God. We have done and will do things we regret. Please please please forgive us.”

      Does that help at all?

      1. It does indeed….perfectly, wonderfully, beautifully…..and in a way which takes in and covers whichever, all, either, any, variation one uses or ‘feels’: as ever, thank you, Rabbi Ruth….very much appreciated.

  2. Thank you for the translation Rabbi Ruth. I have seen Cantors fall to their knees during the recitation of this prayer and now I know why. To my ears it is beautiful and even more so after reading this. I am in in awe and humbled by the beauty of the meaning of this meaningful prayer.

  3. Well, every year I step up and sing Kol Nidre. Our chavurah in the Pacific Northwest is small – maybe 50 families – and we don’t have a rabbi or a building. What we do have in abundance is a real sense of community and it’s been that way for 25 years. So, we all pitch in. Kol Nidre is one contribution I can make, that seems to mean something to people. Some years I sing it better. Some years I sing it … not as well. what I mean by better is when I get out of the way and let the music flow *through* me. When it’s not about me, but opening to Spirit. Every year I close my eyes and step off into space. Before Kol Nidre, every year, I try to deepen my own understanding of the prayer. Yours is actually the explanation that speaks most eloquently to me. Thank you for that.

  4. Thanks for the translation. To me it doesn’t sound all that different from Christians confession or asking forgiveness from god for the mistakes they’ve made. The thing about asking it ahead of time is troubling, because I can see how it would lead to a psychological effect of being more likely to commit such deeds for some people. I don’t personally know any Jews, but I have personal experience with Jehova’s witnesses who clearly keep doing the wrong things over and over again because they’re so confident it will all be forgiven, for they see themselves as chosen people, or God’s favorites. It’s just human nature, so I’m certain some Jews also are using this as a reason to not remain entirely honest, especially when it comes to dealings with non Jews. And it certainly gives Jews a bad rep.

    By the way Wikipedia still says it’s a juristic vow. You might want to challenge that if you have evidence to the contrary.

    1. “First let me talk about what Kol Nidre is not: it is not a “get out of jail free” trick. It does not apply, nor has it ever applied, to business obligations, contracts, or to personal promises and vows.  Through history, it has caused a lot of trouble when those who hate Jews have read it that way.”

  5. I believe that the Kol Nidre Prayer seeks Forgiveness for our Shortcomings as we set upon the New Year… We make Plans, Promises and Vows to Be Better People and it is very personal between Us and G-d.
    But we ask to be Forgiven and for our Promises and Vows to be Annulled BECAUSE WE DO NOT WANT TO LIE TO THE LORD! It is in NO WAY intended to make our Pledges to DO better any less Seriously, but just in case we do not accomplish what we Vow, and as Humans we do make mistakes and are likely to not be “perfect” we do not want to insult G-d by breaking our Promises to Hashem so while our Intentions are Pure and Spiritual we ask that if we Fail in ANY WAY that these “Vows” are considered Null and Void… In order to not Break those Pledges to the Lord.

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