New Year’s Day comes only once a year – doesn’t it?
In the Gregorian Calendar and most other calendars, that’s certainly true. But this is yet another way that the Jewish calendar is different. We celebrate FOUR New Year’s:
Rosh Hashanah is translated “the head of the year.” In the fall, on the first of Tishrei, we celebrate the most well-known New Year’s Day in Judaism. This is the day that the number of the year changes (5774 to 5775, etc.) It’s the day we remember the beginning of Jewish time (the Creation) and reflect on the end of Jewish time, as well. It is also the Biblical date for starting the sabbatical and jubilee (shemita) years. For American Jews, this is a day for synagogue and a festive meal.
Tu B’Shevat (the 15th of Shevat) is the New Year of the Trees which falls in midwinter. It began as an accounting device, a “fiscal year” for tithing produce from trees (olives, dates, figs, etc.) In the 16th century, the mystical rabbis of Safed were excited to be living in the land of Israel after their flight from Spain, and they began to observe the day with a seder and mystical symbolism. In the 19th century, Zionists celebrated the day as a celebration of the greening of the land of Israel, and in the 21st century, the day has come to be a day of ecological concern and action.
1st of Nisan in early spring is the first day of the first month of the Biblical year. According to Mishnah Rosh Hashanah 1:1, the first of Nisan is “the new year for kings and for festivals.” The reigns of kings were calculated from this date, and the festival of Passover, which falls later in Nisan, is the festival which begins the history of the Jews as a nation.
1st of Elul in late summer was the beginning of the fiscal year for animal tithes in Israel. When the temple stood, people who raised animals were obligated to give a tithe from their flocks. Nowadays this is the date upon which we begin the process of preparation for the purification of the Days of Awe in the following month.
As a Jew living in the San Francisco Bay Area, I live in a place where we also celebrate the Gregorian New Year on Jan 1, the Chinese New Year in the spring, and the Islamic New Year which travels around the seasons, a feature of their lunar calendar!
Every New Year is a moment of hope in the stream of time, reminding us that our days are limited but that what lies ahead is as yet unwritten. As the great medieval Jewish philosopher Bachya Ibn Pekuda wrote,
“Our days are scrolls. Write in them what you wish to be remembered.”
11 thoughts on “Four New Years Every Year?!”
Reblogged this on A TZIMMES REVIVED and commented:
I keep learning new things about Judaism from this wonderful blog. I didn’t know about 1st of Elul or the 1st of Nissan. I really love this blog and hope you will become a fan of The Coffee Shop Rabbi also!
Rabbi, I am learning so much from you. I am reblogging this post. It is the second post that you have written that I have reblogged. I sing your praises everywhere! I wish you lived near me. I would certainly love to study under you!
Thank you for your kind words, wxxifan! I look forward to following you at https://atzimmes2.wordpress.com as you grow your new blog.
If you’d like to take a class with me, check out this post: http://coffeeshoprabbi.com/2014/12/19/israel-texts-online/ – that’s one class I’m offering this term that will be live-streamed for students. Alternatively, if there’s a particular topic you’d like, let me know and I will see if we can get “critical mass” for it.
Wishing you a great new year and success with the new blog!
The year I turned 40, the Jewish Calendar had the last two digits of my birth year twice: 5757!! I thought that was just about the coolest thing ever!! 😀