First of all, let’s talk definitions:
DRASH is an interpretation of something in scripture.
e.g. Rabbi Akiva gave a drash that explained the crowns on the letters of the Torah scroll. OR
e.g.: “That’s an interesting drash,” the teacher said, after Abe speculated that perhaps the burning bush was a door into another dimension.
D’VAR TORAH (duh-VAHR toh-RAH) (literally, a “word of Torah”) is a short teaching linked to a passage of Torah. (Please do not refer to it as a “d’var.” That means “a word of,” which is annoying; a word of what?)
e.g. Will you give a d’var Torah to open next week’s meeting?
While we’re at it, let’s look at some related D (for Dalet) words:
DRASHAH (drah-SHAH) is the same as drash, but usually refers to something more formal, like a sermon or lesson.
e.g. On the High Holy Days, Rabbi Cohen’s drashah might be as long as 45 minutes.
A DARSHAN (dar-SHAHN) is a man who gives a drash. When a woman does it, we call her a DARSHANIT.
e.g. I asked Rivka to be the darshanit for next week’s service, but if she can’t do it, ask Robert to be the darshan.
MIDRASH (mi-DRASH or MID-drash) – See What is Midrash?
e.g. The story about Abraham’s father the idol maker is a midrash.
So the answer to the original question is “not much!”
God has a lot of different names and titles in Judaism. Here is a short guide to just a few of them:
For teaching purposes, I am writing most of these names out as they would be pronounced. Some Jews do not pronounce certain names of God out of reverence except it prayer, or at all.
YUD-HEY-VAV-HEY (never pronounced aloud) – This is the personal name of God, four letters that appear to be related to the verb “to be.” It has not been pronounced aloud since the destruction of the Temple in 70 AD. For a long time before that, it was pronounced only by the High Priest, and only on Yom Kippur. When an observant Jew sees this name, he or she substitutes other names for it in Hebrew, usually “Adonai” or “HaShem” (more about them below.) Some English translations transmit it as “LORD,” often in caps. Some modern Jewish translators prefer “The Eternal” as a substitute for translation. This name is also referred to as “The Tetragrammaton” (Greek for Four Letter Word).
EHYEH-ASHER-EHYEH – (pronounced as written) – This Hebrew phrase is one of the answers given when Moses asks the name of God in Exodus 3:14. It translates in English to “I will be what I will be” or “I am what I am” or “I am what I will be.” In the same verse, God also gives Moses the shortened form of the same name “Ehyeh”. The next verse, Expdus 3:15, gives the Tetragrammaton as the name.
ADONAI (ah-doh-NIGH) – This is the word most often substituted for the name that isn’t pronounced. It is usually translated as “Lord” or “My Lord” in English. Many observant Jews do not even speak this word aloud except in prayer.
HASHEM (hah-SHEM) – “The Name” – This is not a name per se, but it is used as a substitution for the four letter name of God. In English, it’s usually rendered as “God” or simply as “Hashem.”
Attempts at Pronunciation
JEHOVAH (not used by Jews) – This is a vocalization of the four letter name for God, an estimation made by Christian scholars using the four consonants of the Tetragrammaton combined with the vowels in Adonai. It appears in William Tyndale’s English (Christian) Bible as the translation of the Tetragrammaton. This pronunciation is now thought by most scholars to be in error.
YAHWEH (not used by Jews) – This is the vocalization of the Tetragrammaton used by most academic Biblical scholars today, although there are still questions about whether it is the pronunciation used by the ancient Jewish priesthood. However, observant Jews will seldom if ever pronounce this word – they will instead use one of the substitutions above.
Often, God is not referred to by name but by title, just as one might refer to Elizabeth of Windsor as “The Queen of the UK.”
ELOHIM (el-loh-HEEM) – This is the first title of God that appears in the Torah, in Genesis 1:1. It is a curious word, since it is technically in the plural, although it is understood as a singular title. Generally English translations render it as “God.”
EL (EHL) – This is both the Hebrew word for “god” and the name of a Canaanite deity.
GOD – God is an English title, not a name of the Eternal. The word has Germanic roots.
LORD – This title is from the Old English Hlaford, meaning “master.” It was also used to translate the Latin word Dominus.
Bottom line: Modern Jews avoid pronouncing the four letter name of God. First, we don’t know how to say it correctly. Secondly, tradition forbids saying it. To some it may seem silly; we know that lightning will not strike if we say it. It is a matter of respect, and a way of reminding ourselves that the Eternal is, above all, a great mystery beyond any words we can say or any image we might make.
Image by Emily Rose, some rights reserved.
In the middle of Passover and Sukkot, you may hear the term “Chol HaMoed” or “Hol HaMoed,” and you might wonder, “A Whole What???”
That’s what Jews call the middle days of Passover and Sukkot. Both festivals run for a week. The first day (or two) of the holiday is called a “Chag” and is extra special, almost like Shabbat. Same for the last day: ideally, one is home from work and attends synagogue. The middle days of the week are still special but do not have so many restrictions: some businesses in Israel might be open, and Jews in Diaspora go to work. “Chol” means “Ordinary” and “HaMoed” in this context means “of the festival” – these are more ordinary days of the holiday.
Now, just to confuse things, you may also encounter this term: Shabbat Chol HaMoed Pesach. That’s the Shabbat in the middle of Passover, when it doesn’t fall on one of the “Chag” days. It has its own special Torah and Haftorah readings. There’s also one of those for Sukkot in some years. For information on this particular year, consult a Jewish calendar.
There’s a special greeting for these not-so-ordinary days in mid-festival: if someone says to you, “Moadim l’simchah!” it means “Festival of Joy.” You can reply with the same words, or you can just say, “Same to you!”
Note: There’s a trick for saying that “ch” sound in Hebrew. What noise does an angry cat make? The “ch” sound is a little bitty short version of that. If you truly can’t do it, use an “h” sound instead.
.ובמקום שאין אנשים השתדל להיות איש
The absolute best thing about being a teacher is the opportunity to learn from one’s students.
I’m currently teaching a class on Pirkei Avot, the Verses of the Fathers, at Temple Isaiah in Lafayette, CA. Today we talked about Chapter 2, and a question came up about the verse that is usually translated:
In a place where there are no men, strive to be a man.
I pointed out that in a spirit of greater inclusion, some translators translate anashim as “human beings” and ish as “human being.” One student offered the following translation, which I love:
In a place where there are no menschen, be a mensch!
Originally, the Yiddish word mensch came from the German for “person.” By the 20th century, it had taken on an additional layer of meaning, that of a person who is decent and kind, one who embodies the best of humanity. The Jewish-English Lexicon offers Rosten’s translation: “An upright, honorable, a decent person.”
If you Googled “tzedakah” today you got about 598,000 results, topped by a l-o-n-g Wikipedia entry. Here are eight basic facts about tzedakah:
- Tzedakah (tzeh-dah-KAH or tzeh-DAH-kah) is the Jewish word closest to “charity.”
- The word tzedakah is one of a group of Hebrew words related to the idea of “justice.”
- Strictly speaking, tzedakah is money given for the relief of suffering or injustice.
- Tzedakah usually refers to monetary gifts, but can also refer to other kinds of contributions.
- Jews are commanded to give tzedakah for the benefit of the poor, the sick, and those who have suffered an injustice.
- More broadly, people use the word tzedakah to refer to money given for charitable causes.
- Every Jew is commanded to give tzedakah, even those who are recipients of tzedakah.
- It is customary to give tzedakah in memory of the dead, in honor of others, and before Shabbat and holidays.
- The proper amount of tzedakah depends on the means of the giver. Maimonides wrote in the Mishneh Torah that the ideal is 10% of income, and that more than 20% is foolhardy unless given in time of famine or to aid a captive. One should not give so much tzedakah that he puts himself at risk of needing to receive tzedakah from others.
For more about tzedakah, MyJewishLearning.com has a great article.
Hebrew is cool. It’s a Semitic language, and it works very differently from English.
Most words in Hebrew grow from a three-letter ROOT. The root expresses a general idea, a family of possible words with three basic consonants. We add vowels, endings, and prefixes to make the variations on the theme.
For instance, K-D-Sh (Kuf, Dalet, Shin) is a root whose general idea is “holy.” With appropriate vowels, etc we get:
Kaddish – (kah-DEESH or KAH-dish)* The prayer mourners say, which also divides the service into sections.
Kiddush – (Kee-DOOSH or KID-ish) The blessing-toast for Shabbat and holidays, or a meal that begins with that blessing.
Kodesh – (KOH-desh) – (adj.) Holy
Kiddushin – (kee-doosh-EEN) – Jewish marriage, in which each partner is sacred to and set apart for the other.
Can you think of any other words in this family that you’ve heard around synagogue?
Are there any other Hebrew words you’ve heard that sound like each other and confuse you?
*Some words have two pronunciations listed. The first is the modern Israeli pronunciation, and the second is the Ashkenazi pronunciation, which sometimes pops up in American English. Both are correct.
Also, in the illustration above, remember that English reads left-to-right but Hebrew reads right-to-left. The Shin is the letter on your left.
- Hebrew, Greek, Sanskrit and the Arabic Alphabet (hannahjodesign.wordpress.com)